Testing hypotheses of monophyly for different nematode groups in the context of broad representation of nematode diversity is central to understanding the patterns and processes of nematode evolution. Herein sequence information from mitochondrial genomes is used to test the monophyly of diplogasterids, which includes an important nematode model organism. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Koerneria sudhausi, a representative of Diplogasteromorpha, was determined and used for phylogenetic analyses along with 60 other nematode species. The mtDNA of K. sudhausi is comprised of 16,005 bp that includes 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic trees inferred from amino acid and nucleotide sequence data for the 12 protein-coding genes strongly supported the sister relationship of K. sudhausi with Pristionchus pacificus, supporting Diplogasteromorpha. The gene order of K. sudhausi is identical to that most commonly found in members of the Rhabditomorpha + Ascaridomorpha + Diplogasteromorpha clade, with an exception of some tRNA translocations. Both the gene order pattern and sequence-based phylogenetic analyses support a close relationship between the diplogasterid species and Rhabditomorpha. The nesting of the two diplogasteromorph species within Rhabditomorpha is consistent with most molecular phylogenies for the group, but inconsistent with certain morphology-based hypotheses that asserted phylogenetic affinity between diplogasteromorphs and tylenchomorphs. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences strongly supports monophyly of the diplogasteromorpha.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2013R1A1A2005898), and a grant from Marine Biotechnology Program (PJT200620, Genome Analysis of Marine Organisms and Development of Functional Applications and Marine Mollusk Resource Bank of Korea) funded by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea.
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- Koerneria sudhausi
- Mitochondrial genome
- Molecular phylogeny