The incidence of mixed viral/bacterial infections has increased recently because of the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the emergence of new pathogens, and the resurgence of old ones. Despite the relatively well-known role of viruses in enhancing bacterial infections, the impact of bacterial infections on viral infections remains unknown. In this study, we provide direct evidence that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a major respiratory bacterial pathogen, augments the host antiviral response by up-regulating epithelial Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, NTHi induces TLR7 expression via a TLR2-MyD88-IRAK-TRAF6-IKK-NF- κB-dependent signaling pathway. Interestingly, CYLD, a novel deubiquitinase, acts as a negative regulator of TLR7 induction by NTHi. Our study thus provides new insights into a novel role for bacterial infection in enhancing host antiviral response and further identifies CYLD for the first time as a critical negative regulator of host antiviral response.
- Mixed infection
- Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
- Signal transduction
- Toll-like receptor 7