Background: The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods: A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010-2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16-1.97) and 1.56 (1.23-1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95-1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68-2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Korean Academy of Family Medicine.
- Metabolic syndrome