Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members are multifunctional growth factors involved in regulating diverse biological processes. Despite the critical role for TGF-β in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and development, its role in regulating NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response still remains unclear. Here, we show that TGF-β1 induces acetylation of NF-κB p65 subunit to synergistically enhance bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The TGF-β1-induced acetylation of p65 is mediated via a Smad3/4-PKA-p300- dependent signaling pathway. Acetylation of p65 at lysine 221 by TGF-β1 is critical for synergistic enhancement of bacteria-induced DNA-binding activity, NF-κB activation, NF-κB-dependent transcription of TNF-α and IL-1β and interstitial polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration in vitro and in vivo. These studies provide new insights into the novel regulation of NF-κB by TGF-β signaling.
- p65 acetylation