Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy is a therapeutic option for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants resistant to lamivudine (LAM). We evaluated the antiviral efficacy and safety of TDF alone compared to those of TDF plus LAM or telbivudine (LdT) combination in patients harboring HBV variants with genotypic resistance to LAM. This multicenter retrospective study included consecutive patients who had LAM-resistant HBV variants and were treated with TDF alone (monotherapy group) or TDF combined with LAM or LdT (combination therapy group) for at least 6 months. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for the entire cohort was applied to control for treatment selection bias. Overall, 153 patients (33 in the monotherapy group and 120 in the combination therapy group) were analyzed. The overall probability of achieving complete virologic suppression at month 12 was 91.6%: 88.6% in the monotherapy group and 92.6% in the combination therapy group. Combination therapy was not superior to monotherapy in viral suppression before and after IPTW (P = 0.562 and P = 0.194, respectively). Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) loss, biochemical response, and virologic breakthrough did not differ between treatment groups. The probabilities of complete virologic suppression were comparable between treatment groups in the subsets according to HBeAg status and HBV DNA levels at baseline. No patient experienced any significant renal dysfunction during the treatment period. In conclusion, TDF monotherapy has antiviral efficacy comparable to that of TDF plus LAM or LdT combination therapy, with a favorable safety profile in CHB patients with LAM-resistant HBV variants.
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