Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

Sun Jong Kim, Jaeyoung Yoo, Young Soo Kim, Sang Wan Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. Material and Methods: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system) was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm), which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.). Baseline temperature was 31±1°C. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences) for maximum recorded temperature (Max T°C), change in temperature (δT°C) from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (δT°C) were 1.57°C and 2.46°C for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05). No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47°C, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)522-527
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Oral Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2010


  • Bone necrosis
  • Heat production
  • Implant drilling
  • Infrared thermography


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