Technological innovation, the kyoto protocol, and open innovation

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This study investigates the role of technological innovation in increasing the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Panel data showing the number of patents for climate change mitigation technology as a measure of innovation are obtained from 54 countries for the period 1990–2015 to verify whether technological innovation is effective in reducing GHG emissions and whether it has a significant synergetic relationship with the Kyoto Protocol. The historical trends in the number of patents for climate change mitigation technology reveal a relationship between the Kyoto Protocol and technological innovation and show differences between specific types of mitigation technology. Based on these innovation data, this study conducts two-stage least squares analysis that considers the time-lag effect. The empirical results confirm that mitigation innovations for buildings and the production or processing of goods have a strong positive association with GHG emission reduction. The findings also support the long-term synergetic effect between innovation and participation in the Kyoto Protocol in terms of GHG mitigation. This study contributes to international climate change governance by providing empirical evidence for technological innovation’s role in strengthening the effectiveness of international regimes and implications for promoting open innovation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number198
JournalJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Climate change mitigation technology
  • Effectiveness of international regime
  • GHG mitiga-tion
  • Innovation
  • Synergetic effect


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