The reactions of manganese(III) porphyrin complexes with terminal oxidants, such as m-chloroperbenzoic acid, iodosylarenes, and H2O2, produced high-valent manganese(V)-oxo porphyrins in the presence of base in organic solvents at room temperature. The manganese(V)-oxo porphyrins have been characterized with various spectroscopic techniques, including UV-vis, EPR, 1H and 19F NMR, resonance Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The combined spectroscopic results indicate that the manganese(V)-oxo porphyrins are diamagnetic low-spin (S = O) species with a longer, weaker Mn-O bond than in previously reported Mn(V)-oxo complexes of non-porphyrin ligands. This is indicative of double-bond character between the manganese(V) ion and the oxygen atom and may be attributed to the presence of a trans axial ligand. The [(Porp)MnV=O]+ species are stable in the presence of base at room temperature. The stability of the intermediates is dependent on base concentration. In the absence of base, (Porp)-Mn IV=O is generated instead of the [(Porp)MnV=O]+ species. The stability of the [(Porp)MnV=O]+ species also depends on the electronic nature of the porphyrin ligands: [(Porp)Mn V=O]+ complexes bearing electron-deficient porphyrin ligands are more stable than those bearing electron-rich porphyrins. Reactivity studies of manganese(V)-oxo porphyrins revealed that the intermediates are capable of oxygenating PPh3 and thioanisoles, but not olefins and alkanes at room temperature. These results indicate that the oxidizing power of [(Porp)MnV=O]+ is low in the presence of base. However, when the [(Porp)MnV=O]+ complexes were associated with iodosylbenzene in the presence of olefins and alkanes, high yields of oxygenated products were obtained in the catalytic olefin epoxidation and alkane hydroxylation reactions. Mechanistic aspects, such as oxygen exchange between [(Porp)MnV=16O]+ and H2 18O, are also discussed.