Plasmonic gap nanostructures (PGNs) have been extensively investigated mainly because of their strongly enhanced optical responses, which stem from the high intensity of the localized field in the nanogap. The recently developed methods for the preparation of versatile nanogap structures open new avenues for the exploration of unprecedented optical properties and development of sensing applications relying on the amplification of various optical signals. However, the reproducible and controlled preparation of highly uniform plasmonic nanogaps and the prediction, understanding, and control of their optical properties, especially for nanogaps in the nanometer or sub-nanometer range, remain challenging. This is because subtle changes in the nanogap significantly affect the plasmonic response and are of paramount importance to the desired optical performance and further applications. Here, recent advances in the synthesis, assembly, and fabrication strategies, prediction and control of optical properties, and sensing applications of PGNs are discussed, and perspectives toward addressing these challenging issues and the future research directions are presented.
- nanostructure synthesis
- sensing applications