Synthesis and evaluation of 2-amino-9-(3-hydroxymethyl-4- alkoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purines as potential prodrugs of penciclovir

Dae Kee Kim, Namkyu Lee, Young Woo Kim, Kieyoung Chang, Jae Sun Kim, Guang Jin Im, Won Son Choi, Inho Jung, Taek Soo Kim, Yong Youn Hwang, Dong Sun Min, Key An Um, Yong Baik Cho, Key H. Kim

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A series of 2-amino-9-(3-hydroxymethyl-4-alkoxycarbonyloxybut-1- yl)purines (4-10) and 2-amino-9-(2-(2-oxo-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)ethyl)purine (1) were synthesized as potential prodrugs of penciclovir and evaluated for their oral penciclovir bioavailability in mice and rats. Treatment of 2-(2- benzyloxyethyl)propane-1,3-diol (11) with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in THF followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the benzyl group of the resulting cyclic carbonate 12 gave 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-dioxan-2-one (13). Mesylation of the alcohol 13 and then a coupling reaction of the resulting mesylate 14 with 2-amino-6-chloropurine using anhydrous Cs2CO3 in DMF afforded 2- amino-6-chloro-9-(2-(2-oxo-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)ethyl)purine (16) after purification by flash column chromatography on silica gel using EtOAc/MeCN/Et3N as eluent. Hydrogenation of the 6-chloro cyclic carbonate 16 followed by a ring-opening reaction of the 6-deoxy cyclic carbonate 1 in a mixture of an appropriate alcohol and CHCl3 using activated SiO2 as a Lewis acid afforded the corresponding alkyl monocarbonate derivatives 3-10 in fair to good yields. Of the prodrugs tested in mice, the isopropyl monocarbonate 6 achieved the highest mean urinary recovery of penciclovir (53%), followed in order by the propel monocarbonate 5 (51%), the isopentyl monocarbonate 10 (51%), the ethyl monocarbonate 4 (50%), and famciclovir (48%). In rats, the methyl monocarbonate 3, 4, 6, the n-butyl monocarbonate 7, and 10 (39-41%) showed levels of mean urinary recovery of penciclovir similar to that from famciclovir (40%). The alkyl monocarbonates 4-10 were found to be quite stable in the aqueous buffer solutions, and among them, 6 was the most stable with the half-lives (t( 1/4 )) of 88, >200, 61, and 26 days at pH 1.2, 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0, respectively. In addition, 6 was highly soluble in H20 (138.8 mg/mL, 20 °C).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3435-3441
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number18
StatePublished - 27 Aug 1998


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