A series of 2-amino-9-(3-acyloxymethyl-4-alkoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purines (1-8) and 2-amino-9-(3-alkoxycarbonyl- oxymethyl-4-alkoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purines (9-12) were synthesized as potential prodrugs of penciclovir. Treatment of 6- deoxypenciclovir with trimethyl orthoacetate or triethyl orthopropionate (1.2 equiv) in DMF in the presence of p-TsOH ·H2 O (0.1 equiv) followed by quenching with excess H2O gave the corresponding mono-O-acetyl or mono-O-propionyl compound, 17 or 18, in excellent yields of 95 and 92%, respectively. Reactions of 17 or 18 with an appropriate alkyl (Me, Et, n-Pr, and i-Pr) 4-nitro- phenyl carbonate (1.2 equiv) in pyridine in the presence of a catalytic amount of DMAP (0.1 equiv) at 80°C afforded the monoacyl, monocarbonate derivatives of 6-deoxypenciclovir, 1-8, in 86-94% yields. Similar reactions of 6-deoxypenciclovir with 2.1 equiv of alkyl 4-nitrophenyl carbonate produced the dicarbonate derivatives 9-12 in 81-83% yields. Of the prodrugs tested in rats, 2-amino- 9-(3-acetoxymethyl-4-isopropoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purine (4) achieved the highest mean urinary recovery of penciclovir (36%), followed in order by compounds 2 (35%), 6 (35%), 7 (34%), 10 (34%), 8 (32%), 3 (32%), and famciclovir (31%). The mean urinary recovery of penciclovir and concentrations of penciclovir in the blood from 4 in mice were also slightly higher than those from famciclovir. The in vivo antiviral efficacy of 4 in HSV-1-infected normal BALB/c mice was higher than those of famciclovir and valaciclovir in terms of mortality (100, 80, and 40%) and mean survival time (>21, 13±5.0 (SEM), and 13±1.6 days). Compound 4 demonstrated an effective anti-hepadnaviral response with intrahepatic viral load being reduced by 90%, the viral supercoiled DNA levels reduced by 70% and Pre-S expression inhibited by 30% against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vivo, and did not cause any significant hepatotoxicity after 4 weeks of treatment. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Enzyme inhibitors