tert-Azido or amino substituted penciclovir analogs, 1-3 were synthesized for the purpose of improving the efficacy and bioavailability of penciclovir and searching for novel antiviral agents. Among several methods attempted to insert an azido group into the α,β-unsaturated ester 6, only Brønsted acid-catalysed 1,4-conjugate addition conditions (NaN 3, 75% acetic acid, 80°C) gave the desired tert-azido product 7. The synthesized final penciclovir analogs 1-3 were evaluated in vitro against several viruses such as HIV-1, HSV-1 and 2, poliovirus, VZV, and VSV. Compound 2 only showed weak antiviral activity against HSV-1 without cytotoxicity. Although the synthesized compounds did not exhibit an excellent antiviral activity, the successful method used in introducing the tert-azido group is expected to be generally utilized for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs with a tert-azido substituent.