Surface Electrochemistry of Carbon Electrodes and Faradaic Reactions in Capacitive Deionization

Jin Soo Kang, Seoni Kim, Jiho Kang, Hwajoo Joo, Junghwan Jang, Kyusik Jo, Subin Park, Hyoung Il Kim, Sung Jong Yoo, Jeyong Yoon, Yung Eun Sung, T. Alan Hatton

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23 Scopus citations


Recent advances in electrochemical desalination techniques have paved way for utilization of saline water. In particular, capacitive deionization (CDI) enables removal of salts with high energy efficiency and economic feasibility, while its applicability has been challenged by degradation of carbon electrodes in long-term operations. Herein, we report a thorough investigation on the surface electrochemistry of carbon electrodes and Faradaic reactions that are responsible for stability issues of CDI systems. By using bare and membrane CDI (MCDI) as model systems, we identified various electrochemical reactions of carbon electrodes with water or oxygen, with thermodynamics and kinetics governed by the electrode potential and pH. As a result, a complete overview of the Faradaic reactions taking place in CDI was constructed by tracing the physicochemical changes occurring in CDI and MCDI systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12602-12612
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number17
StatePublished - 6 Sep 2022

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  • Faradaic reaction
  • capacitive deionization
  • carbon
  • desalination
  • electrochemistry


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