Recent advances in electrochemical desalination techniques have paved way for utilization of saline water. In particular, capacitive deionization (CDI) enables removal of salts with high energy efficiency and economic feasibility, while its applicability has been challenged by degradation of carbon electrodes in long-term operations. Herein, we report a thorough investigation on the surface electrochemistry of carbon electrodes and Faradaic reactions that are responsible for stability issues of CDI systems. By using bare and membrane CDI (MCDI) as model systems, we identified various electrochemical reactions of carbon electrodes with water or oxygen, with thermodynamics and kinetics governed by the electrode potential and pH. As a result, a complete overview of the Faradaic reactions taking place in CDI was constructed by tracing the physicochemical changes occurring in CDI and MCDI systems.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Institute for Basic Science in Republic of Korea (project code: IBS-R006-A2) and the New Faculty Startup Fund (grant number: 0456-20220022) from Seoul National University in Republic of Korea.
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- Faradaic reaction
- capacitive deionization