Background: Since colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in chemoresistance and in tumor recurrence and metastasis, targeting of CSCs has emerged as a sophisticated strategy for cancer therapy. α-mangostin (αM) has been confirmed to have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on cancer cells. This study aimed to evaluate the selective inhibition of αM on CSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the suppressive effect on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced CSCs. Methods: The cell viability assay was performed to determine the optimal concentration of αM. A sphere forming assay and flow cytometry with CSC markers were carried out to evaluate the αM-mediated inhibition of CSCs. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to investigate the effects of αM on the Notch signaling pathway and colon CSCs. The in vivo anticancer efficacy of αM in combination with 5-FU was investigated using a xenograft mouse model. Results: αM inhibited the cell viability and reduced the number of spheres in HT29 and SW620 cells. αM treatment decreased CSCs and suppressed the 5-FU-induced an increase in CSCs on flow cytometry. αM markedly suppressed Notch1, NICD1, and Hes1 in the Notch signaling pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, αM attenuated CSC markers CD44 and CD133, in a manner similar to that upon DAPT treatment, in HT29 cells. In xenograft mice, the tumor and CSC makers were suppressed in the αM group and in the αM group with 5-FU treatment. Conclusion: This study shows that low-dose αM inhibits CSCs in CRC and suppresses 5-FU–induced augmentation of CSCs via the Notch signaling pathway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2020R1A2C1010786 and 2020R1A5A2019210; Chang Mo Moon).
© 2022, The Author(s).
- Cancer stem cell
- Colorectal cancer
- Notch signal
- Phytochemical agent