Suppression of neuroinflammation and α-synuclein oligomerization by rotarod walking exercise in subacute MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

Yea Hyun Leem, Jin Sun Park, Jung Eun Park, Do Youn Kim, Hee Sun Kim

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5 Scopus citations


Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to an α-synucleinopathy and manifests motor dysfunction attributed to nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. In clinical practice, the beneficial role of physical therapy such as motor skill learning training has been recognized in PD-linked motor defects. Nevertheless, the disease-modifying effects of motor skill learning training on PD-related pathology remain unclear. Here, we investigated the disease-modifying effects of rotarod walking exercise (RWE), a modality of motor skill learning training, in a subacute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. In motor function and dopaminergic degeneration, RWE improved MPTP-induced deficits. In addition, RWE enhanced the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF/GDNF, PGC1-α, Nurr1, and p-AMPK, thereby recovering dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Moreover, RWE inhibited microglial activation and the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, such as p-IκBα, iNOS, IL-1β, TNF-α, and cathepsin D, while elevating anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β. RWE also decreased oxidative stress markers in the substantia nigra, such as 4-HNE and 8-OHdG-positive cells, while increasing Nrf2-controlled antioxidant enzymes. Regarding the effect of RWE on α-synuclein, it reduced the monomer/oligomer forms of α-synuclein and phosphorylation at serine 129. Further mechanistic studies revealed that RWE suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and p-GSK3β (Y216), which play key roles in α-synuclein aggregation. These data collectively suggest that inhibition of neuroinflammation and α-synuclein oligomerization by RWE may contribute to the improvement of PD pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105519
JournalNeurochemistry International
StatePublished - May 2023

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  • Molecular mechanism
  • Motor skill learning training
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Rotarod walking exercise
  • α-synuclein


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