Sulfur-anchored palm shell waste-based activated carbon for ultrahigh sorption of Hg(II) for in-situ groundwater treatment

So Yeon Yoon, Seok Byum Jang, Kien Tiek Wong, Hyeseong Kim, Min Ji Kim, Choe Earn Choong, Jae Kyu Yang, Yoon Young Chang, Sang Eun Oh, Yeomin Yoon, Min Jang

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12 Scopus citations


This study utilized a facile and scalable one-pot wet impregnation method for Hg(II) adsorption to prepare sulfur-anchored palm shell waste activated carbon powder (PSAC-S). The experimental results revealed that the sulfur precursors promote the surface charge on the PSAC and enhance Hg(II) removal via the Na2S > Na2S2O4 > CH3CSNH2 sequence. PSAC-S prepared using Na2S had significant Hg(II) sorption efficiencies, achieving a maximum sorption capacity of 136 mg g−1 from the Freundlich model. Compared to PSAC, PSAC-S had an enhancement in Hg(II) sorption behavior for heterogeneous interactions with sulfur. PSAC-S also demonstrated high Hg(II) sorption capacities over a wide range of solution pH, while ionic strength had an insignificant impact on Hg(II) removal efficiencies. Through various spectroscopic analyses, we identified the mechanisms of Hg(II) removal by PSAC-S as electrostatic interactions, Hg-Cl complexation, and precipitation as HgSO4. Moreover, PSAC-S unveiled high adsorption affinity and Hg(II) stability in actual groundwater (even in µg L−1 level). These overall results show the potentials of PSAC-S as an alternative, easily scalable material for in-situ Hg(II) remediation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125995
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - 5 Sep 2021

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© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Adsorption
  • Mercury
  • Palm shell activated carbon
  • Sulfur


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