The mitochondria are the major intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated during cellular respiration. The role of peroxiredoxin (Prx) III, a 2-Cys Prx family member, in the scavenging of mitochondrial H2O2 has recently been emphasized. While eliminating H2O2, Prx can become overoxidized and inactivated by modifying the active cysteine into cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H). When 2-Cys Prxs are inactivated in vitro, sulfiredoxin (Srx) reduces the cysteine sulfinic acid to cysteines. However, whereas Srx is localized in the cytoplasm, Prx III is present exclusively in the mitochondria. Although Srx reduces sulfinic Prx III in vitro, it remains unclear whether the reduction of Prx III in cells is actually mediated by Srx. Our gain- and loss-of-function experiments show that Srx is responsible for reducing not only sulfinic cytosolic Prxs (I and II) but also sulfinic mitochondrial Prx III. We further demonstrate that Srx translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress. Overexpression of mitochondrion-targeted Srx promotes the regeneration of sulfinic Prx III and results in cellular resistance to apoptosis, with enhanced elimination of mitochondrial H2O2 and decreased rates of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. These results indicate that Srx plays a crucial role in the reactivation of sulfinic mitochondrial Prx III and that its mitochondrial translocation is critical in maintaining the balance between mitochondrial H2O2 production and elimination.