The sterile alpha motif (SAM) and histidine-aspartate (HD) domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) constitute a triphosphohydrolase that converts deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) into deoxyribonucleosides and triphosphates. SAMHD1 exists in multiple states. The monomer and apo- or GTP-bound dimer are catalytically inactive. Binding of dNTP at allosteric site 2 (AS2), adjacent to GTP-binding allosteric site 1 (AS1), induces formation of the tetramer, the catalytically active form. We have developed an enzyme kinetic assay, tailored to control specific dNTP binding at each site, allowing us to determine the kinetic binding parameters of individual dNTPs at both the AS2 and catalytic sites for all possible combinations of dNTP binding at both sites. Here, we show that the apparent Km values of dNTPs at AS2 vary in the order of dCTP < dGTP < dATP < dTTP. Interestingly, dCTP binding at AS2 significantly reduces the dCTP hydrolysis rate, which is restored to a rate comparable to that of other dNTPs upon dGTP, dATP, or dTTP binding at AS2. Strikingly, a phosphomimetic mutant, Thr592Asp SAMHD1 as well as phospho-Thr592, show a significantly altered substrate specificity, with the rate of dCTP hydrolysis being selectively reduced regardless of which dNTP binds at AS2. Furthermore, cyclin A2 binding at the C-terminus of SAMHD1 induces the disassembly of the SAMHD1 tetramer, suggesting an additional layer of SAMHD1 activity modulation by cyclin A2/CDK2 kinase. Together, our results reveal multiple allosteric mechanisms for controlling the rate of dNTP destruction by SAMHD1.
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© 2016 American Chemical Society.