Submicromolar bisphenol A induces proliferation and DNA damage in human hepatocyte cell lines in vitro and in juvenile rats in vivo

Seoyoung Kim, Gil im Mun, Eun Choi, Minjeong Kim, Ji Seong Jeong, Keon Wook Kang, Sunha Jee, Kyung Min Lim, Yun Sil Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

An association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and hepatic tumors was suggested, but the employment of high-dose levels raises questions about its relevance to human health. Here, we demonstrate that submicromolar concentrations of BPA induce the proliferation and DNA damage in human hepatocyte cell lines. In HepG2 and NKNT-3, undifferentiated and differentiated hepatocyte cell lines, respectively, submicromolar BPA concentrations promoted the cell proliferation, as indicated by enhanced DNA synthesis and elevated expression of cell-cycle proteins. At concentrations higher than 10 μM, these effects disappeared, reflecting a non-monotonic dose-response relationship. Notably, histone H2AX was activated following exposure to BPA, which is a sensitive marker of DNA damage. Importantly, proliferative foci and DNA damage were also observed in liver tissue of rats orally exposed to BPA at 0.5 mg/kg for 90 days, from juvenile age (postnatal day 9) through adulthood. Reactive oxygen species appeared to play a role in the BPA-induced proliferation and DNA damage, as evidenced by a partial reversal of both processes upon pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that submicromolar BPA concentrations induce the DNA damage and promote the cell proliferation in the liver, which may support its role as a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-132
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume111
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Keywords

  • Bisphenol A
  • Cancer
  • DNA damage
  • Hepatic tumor
  • Proliferation
  • γH2AX

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