ACC-1 is a plasmid-encoded class C β-lactamase identified in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. ACC-1-producing bacteria are susceptible to cefoxitin, whereas they are resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins. Here, we depict crystal structures of apo ACC-1, adenylylated ACC-1, and acylated ACC-1 complexed with cefotaxime and cefoxitin. ACC-1 has noteworthy structural alterations in the R2 loop, the Ω loop, and the Phe119 loop located along the active-site rim. The adenylate covalently bonded to the nucleophilic serine reveals a tetrahedral phosphorus mimicking the deacylation transition state. Cefotaxime in ACC-1 has a proper conformation for the substrate-assisted catalysis in that its C-4 carboxylate and N-5 nitrogen are adequately located to facilitate the deacylation reaction. In contrast, cefoxitin in ACC-1 has a distinct conformation, in which those functional groups cannot contribute to catalysis. Furthermore, the orientation of the deacylating water relative to the acyl carbonyl group in ACC-1 is unfavorable for nucleophilic attack.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grant NRF-2015M1A5A1037480 (the National Research Foundation of Korea), the project entitled “Development of Biomedical materials based on marine proteins” (the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Republic of Korea), and a grant from the Collaborative Genome Program 20180430 (the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Republic of Korea).
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- ACC-1 class C β-lactamase
- Acyl-enzyme complex
- Crystal structures