Stroke-Specific Predictors of Major Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Multicenter Registry-Based Study

Darda Chung, Tae Jin Song, Bum Joon Kim, Sung Hyuk Heo, Jin Man Jung, Kyungmi Oh, Chi Kyung Kim, Sungwook Yu, Kwang Yeol Park, Jeong Min Kim, Jong Ho Park, Man Seok Park, Joon Tae Kim, Yang Ha Hwang, Yong Jae Kim, Jong Won Chung, Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Moon Kim, Woo Keun Seo, Jay Chol Choi

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1 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose The congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack (CHA2DS2-VASc) and hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol (HAS-BLED) scores have been validated in estimating the risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding, respectively, in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study investigated stroke-specific predictors of major bleeding in patients with stroke and AF who were taking oral anticoagulants (OACs). Methods Subjects were selected from patients enrolled in the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION) nationwide multicenter registry between 2013 and 2015. Patients were excluded if they were not taking OACs, had no brain imaging data, or had intracranial bleeding directly related to the index stroke. Major bleeding was defined according to International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between clinical variables and major bleeding and Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed to analyze event-free survival. Results Of a total of 3,213 patients, 1,414 subjects (mean age of 72.6 years, 52.5% males) were enrolled in this study. Major bleeding was reported in 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 1.73 years. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, p=0.006), hypertension (HR 3.18, p=0.030), persistent AF type (HR 2.51, p=0.016), and initial hemoglobin level (HR 0.74, p=0.001) were independently associated with major bleeding risk. Except for hypertension, these associations remained significant after adjusting for the HAS-BLED score. Intracranial atherosclerosis presented a trend of association without statistical significance (HR 2.21, p=0.050). Conclusions This study found that major bleeding risk was independently associated with stroke-specific factors in anticoagulated patients with stroke and AF. This has the clinical implication that baseline characteristics of patients with stroke and AF should be considered in secondary prevention, which would bring the net clinical benefit of balancing recurrent stroke prevention with minimal bleeding complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-437
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Neurology (Korea)
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Korean Neurological Association.


  • anticoagulation
  • atrial fibrillation
  • bleeding
  • hemorrhage
  • ischemic stroke


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