Stretchable and Biocompatible Transparent Electrodes for Multimodal Biosignal Sensing from Exposed Skin

Minji Kim, Hyun-Kyung Um, Haemin Choi, Jin Sil Lee, Jihyun Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Eunseo Noh, Minwoo Han, Hyang Woon Lee, Won Il Choi, Seoung Ho Lee, Jung-Rok Lee, Byoung Hoon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Real-time health monitoring technology in daily life requires mechanically robust and transparent electrodes for multimodal biosignal sensing from exposed human epidermis. Here, highly stretchable transparent electrodes comprising a water-dispersed conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and a protic ionic liquid (IL), 3-methylimidazolium:bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (p-MIM:TFSI) are reported. Owing to the high water miscibility of p-MIM:TFSI and its favorable ion exchange capability with PEDOT:PSS, PEDOT:PSS/p-MIM:TFSI transparent electrodes show enhanced electrical conductivity (σ = 450 S cm−1) and thin-film stretchability represented by crack onset strain (εc) exceeding 50%. These electrodes outperform other PEDOT:PSS electrodes processed with an aprotic counterpart, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium(EMIM):TFSI, or a traditional ionic salt, Li:TFSI. The PEDOT:PSS/p-MIM:TFSI thin-film electrodes are also biocompatible and conformally adhere to human skin; therefore, multimodal biosignals including electrocardiogram, electrooculogram, and electromyogram with high signal-to-noise ratios from exposed epidermis on human faces and arms under various measurement conditions mimicking daily activities are collected. Considering the importance of light penetration through human skin for stable biological activity during biosignal monitoring, the results can broaden the applicability of daily-use wearable biosignal sensors by applying them to exposed human skin.
Original languageAmerican English
Article numberaelm.202300075
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - 25 Apr 2023


  • Transparent
  • Stretchable electrode
  • Multimodal
  • Biosignal
  • Sensing


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