This study attempts, for the first time, to predict the annual number of tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting New York State (NYS), as part of the effort of the New York State Resiliency Institute for Storms and Emergencies (RISE). A pure statistical prediction model and a statistical-dynamical hybrid prediction model have been developed based on the understanding of the physical mechanism between NYS TCs and associated large-scale climate variability. During the cold phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, significant circulation anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean provide favorable conditions for more recurving TCs into NYS. The pure statistical prediction model uses the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial Pacific Ocean from the previous months. Cross validation shows that the correlation between the observed and predicted numbers of NYS TCs is 0.56 for the June 1979-2013 forecasts. Forecasts of the probability of one or more TCs impacting NYS have a Brier skill score of 0.35 compared to climatology. The statistical-dynamical hybrid prediction model uses Climate Forecast System, version 2, SST predictions, which are statistically downscaled to forecast the number of NYS TCs based on a stepwise regression model. Results indicate that the initial seasonal prediction for NYS TCs can be issued in February using the hybrid model, with an update in June using the pure statistical prediction model. Based on the statistical model, for 2014, the predicted number of TCs passing through NYS is 0.33 and the probability of one or more tropical cyclones crossing NYS is 30%, which are both below average and in agreement with the actual activity (0 NYS TCs).
- Seasonal forecasting
- Statistical techniques