As ransomware attacks have been prevalent, it becomes crucial to make anti-ransomware solutions that defend against ransomwares. In this article, we propose a new ransomware defense system, called SSD-Insider++, which prevents users' files from being damaged by ransomware attacks. SSD-Insider++ is embedded into an SSD controller as a form of firmware. By being separated from a host machine, it not only provides more robust data protection than software-based ones which are vulnerable to evasion attacks, but also offers interoperability with various platforms. SSD-Insider++ is composed of two novel features, ransomware detection and perfect data recovery, which are tightly integrated with each other. The detection algorithm observes I/O patterns of a host system and decides whether the host is being attacked by ransomwares in an early stage. Once an encryption attack is detected, the recovery algorithm is triggered to recover original files by leveraging a delayed deletion feature of an SSD at a low cost. Our experimental results show that SSD-Insider++ achieves high accuracy of detecting ransomwares with 0 percent FRR/FAR in most cases and provides an instant data recovery with 0 percent data loss. The overhead of running SSD-Insider++ is negligible - only 80 nns and 226 nns are spent more for handling 4-KB reads and writes, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
An earlier version of this article was presented at the IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, July 2-5, 2018 . This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) under Grant NRF-2017R1E1A1A01077410, in part by Global Research Laboratory (GRL) Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT under Grant NRF-2016K1A1A2912757, and in part by Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) under Grant 20180003910012003, Behavior-Based Ransom-ware Detection Technology Using I/O Distribution. Sungha Baek and Youngdon Jung contributed equally to this work.
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- data recovery
- flash-based SSDs
- malware detection