Sonophotocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A and its intermediates with graphitic carbon nitride

Sharmini Sunasee, Kah Hon Leong, Kien Tiek Wong, Gooyong Lee, Saravanan Pichiah, In Wook Nah, Byong Hun Jeon, Yeomin Yoon, Min Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Since bisphenol A (BPA) exhibits endocrine disrupting action and high toxicity in aqueous system, there are high demands to remove it completely. In this study, the BPA removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with nano-structured graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 , GCN) was conducted with various batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) based on ultrasound (US) and visible light (Vis-L). Results of batch tests indicated that GCN-based sonophotocatalysis (Vis-L/US) had higher rate constants than other AOPs and especially two times higher degradation rate than TiO 2 -based Vis-L/US. This result infers that GCN is effective in the catalytic activity in Vis-L/US since its surface can be activated by Vis-L to transport electrons from valence band (VB) for utilizing holes (h + VB ) in the removal of BPA. In addition, US irradiation exfoliated the GCN effectively. The formation of BPA intermediates was investigated in detail by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The possible degradation pathway of BPA was proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1082-1093
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a University of Malaya Research Grant (RP019B-13AET) and partly supported by the Geo-Advanced Innovative Action Project (2012000550002), funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Bisphenol A
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Intermediates
  • Sonophotocatalysis
  • Ultrasound
  • Visible light


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