We aimed to estimate the socioeconomic burden of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA). We prospectively searched for MRAB and MRPA pneumonia cases and matched them with susceptible-organism pneumonia and non-infected patients from 10 hospitals. The matching criteria were: same principal diagnosis, same surgery or intervention during hospitalisation, age, sex, and admission date within 60 days. We calculated the economic burden by using the difference in hospital costs, the difference in caregiver costs, and the sum of productivity loss from an unexpected death. We identified 108 MRAB pneumonia [MRAB-P] and 28 MRPA pneumonia [MRPA-P] cases. The estimated number of annual MRAB-P and MRPA-P cases in South Korea were 1309–2483 and 339–644, with 485–920 and 133–253 deaths, respectively. The annual socioeconomic burden of MRAB-P and MRPA-P in South Korea was $64,549,723–122,533,585 and $15,241,883–28,994,008, respectively. The results revealed that MRAB-P and MRPA-P occurred in 1648–3127 patients, resulted in 618–1173 deaths, and caused a nationwide socioeconomic burden of $79,791,606–151,527,593. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) impose a great clinical and economic burden at a national level. Therefore, controlling the spread of MDRO will be an effective measure to reduce this burden.