Aim: Smartphone overuse can cause not only mobility problems in the wrists, fingers and neck but also interference with sleep habits. However, research on smartphone addiction and sleep disturbances is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate daytime sleepiness in association with smartphone addiction risk in Korean adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey method was used in this study. The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale was used to assess daytime sleepiness, and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale index was used to evaluate the degree of risk for smartphone addiction. Results: The analyses were performed in 1796 adolescents using smartphones, including 820 boys and 976 girls. The at-risk smartphone users made up 15.1% of boys and 23.9% of girls. Our multivariate analyses demonstrated that students who were female, consumed alcohol, had lower academic performance, did not feel refreshed in the morning and initiated sleep after 12 am were at a significantly higher risk of smartphone addiction. The at-risk smartphone user group was independently associated with the upper quartile Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale score in students with the following factors: Female gender, alcohol consumption, poor self-perceived health level, initiating sleep after 12 am, longer time taken to fall asleep and duration of night sleep less than 6 h. Conclusions: The quality of sleep in adolescence affects growth, emotional stability and learning skills. Therefore, the management of smartphone addiction seems to be essential for proper sleeping habits. There is a critical need to develop a means of preventing smartphone addiction on a social level.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Medical Research Center Program (2017R1A5A2015541) of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) and by the research grant of the Chungbuk National University in 2014.
© 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians)
- Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale
- Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale
- cross-sectional survey
- daytime sleepiness
- smartphone addiction