Sleep-related adverse events of smoking cessation drugs: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Yubin Song, Yoon A. Park, Da Hoon Lee, Jeong Yee, Hye Sun Gwak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Smoking cessation medications have the potential to affect the functioning of the nervous system, leading to sleep disturbances. Our study aimed to compare the sleep-related side effects (such as insomnia, abnormal dreams, nightmares, and somnolence) induced by different smoking cessation medications in non-psychiatric smokers. We conducted a thorough search of five electronic databases (Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science) for randomized controlled trials. This study was registered with the PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022347976). A total of 79 full-text articles, encompassing 36,731 participants, were included in our analysis. Individuals using bupropion, bupropion in combination with a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist (NRA), and bupropion in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) exhibited a higher likelihood of experiencing insomnia compared to those using NRT alone. Bupropion plus NRA had the highest ranking on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) for insomnia risk, while placebo had the lowest ranking. Additionally, NRA plus NRT ranked first for abnormal dream outcomes, NRA alone for nightmares, and nortriptyline for somnolence, based on the SUCRA results. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when prescribing smoking cessation drugs, particularly in consideration of their potential sleep-related side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115874
JournalPsychiatry Research
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Abnormal dreams
  • Adverse events
  • Insomnia
  • Network meta-analysis
  • Nightmare
  • Smoking cessation drugs
  • Somnolence


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