Following the development of various types of vaccines, the use of adjuvants to boost vaccine efficacy has become a focus of research. Aluminum hydroxide (alum), the most commonly used adjuvant, induces a certain immune response and ensures safety in human trials. However, alum mainly induces only a Th2 response; its Th1 response is weak. Thus, we previously developed a single-stranded ribose nucleic acid (ssRNA) adjuvant that induces a Th1 response through toll-like receptors. Here, we explored whether 10-valent human papilloma virus (HPV)-like particle (VLP) vaccine formulated with ssRNA adjuvant and alum helped to enhance immune response and maintained memory response. The mice were immunized intramuscularly twice at 2 week intervals and were inoculated 4 days after the second boost (after about 1 year). The antibody response and T cell activation were measured by Elispot, ELISA using harvested serum and splenocytes. The 10-valent HPV VLP vaccine formulated with ssRNA adjuvant and alum increased the antigen-specific immune response more than alum used alone. It increased each type-specific IgG1/IgG2a titer, and antigen-specific IFN-γ cells. Furthermore, the ssRNA adjuvant with alum induced memory response. In memory response, each type-specific IgG1/IgG2c, IFN-γ, and IL-6 cytokine, and neutralizing antibodies were increased by the ssRNA adjuvant with alum. Overall, the ssRNA adjuvant with alum induced memory responses and balanced Th1/Th2 responses. The ssRNA adjuvant and alum may help to enhance prophylactic vaccine efficacy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from SK Bioscience [grant numbers M‐2020‐D0731‐0001, NRF‐2015 M3A9B 5030157]. and partially supported by the Brain Korea 21 Plus Program, H.‐J.P. is supported by the grant from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2022 (grant number 22203MFDS404).
© 2022 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
- HPV virus like particle
- Th1 response
- aluminum hydroxide
- long-lasting immunity
- single-stranded RNA adjuvant