Short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission for pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Jeong Yee, Young Ah Cho, Hee Jeong Yoo, Hyunseo Yun, Hye Sun Gwak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Air pollution is a major issue that poses a health threat worldwide. Although several studies investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on various diseases, few have directly demonstrated the effects on pneumonia. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the associations between short-term exposure of air pollutants and hospital admission or emergency room (ER) visit for pneumonia. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to April 10, 2020. Pooled estimates were calculated as % increase with 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model. A sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out method and subgroup analysis by region were performed. Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. Every 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and PM10 resulted in a 1.0% (95% CI: 0.5–1.5) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.2–0.6) increase in hospital admission or ER visit for pneumonia, respectively. Every 1 ppm increase of CO and 10 ppb increase of NO2, SO2, and O3 was associated with 4.2% (95% CI: 0.6–7.9), 3.2% (95% CI: 1.3–5.1), 2.4% (95% CI: − 2.0-7.1), and 0.4% (95% CI: 0–0.8) increase in pneumonia-specific hospital admission or ER visit, respectively. Except for CO, the sensitivity analyses yielded similar results, demonstrating the robustness of the results. In a subgroup analysis by region, PM2.5 increased hospital admission or ER visit for pneumonia in East Asia but not in North America. Conclusion: By combining the inconsistent findings of several studies, this study revealed the associations between short-term exposure of air pollutants and pneumonia-specific hospital admission or ER visit, especially for PM and NO2. Based on the results, stricter intervention policies regarding air pollution and programs for protecting human respiratory health should be implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Air pollutants
  • Meta-analysis
  • Particulate matter
  • Pneumonia
  • Systematic-review

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