At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, some nursing homes (NHs) in Maryland suffered larger outbreaks than others. This study examined how facility characteristics influenced outbreak size. We conducted a retrospective analysis of secondary data from Maryland NHs to identify characteristics associated with large outbreaks, defined as when total resident cases exceeded 10% of licensed beds, from January 1, 2020, through July 1, 2020. Our dataset was unique in its inclusion of short-stay residents as a measure of resident type and family satisfaction as a measure of quality. Facility characteristics were collected prior to 2020. Like other studies, we found that large outbreaks were more likely to occur in counties with high cumulative incidence of COVID-19, and in NHs with more licensed beds or fewer daily certified nursing assistant (CNA) hours. We also found that NHs with a greater proportion of short-stay residents were more likely to have large outbreaks, even after adjustment for other facility characteristics. Lower family satisfaction was not significantly associated with large outbreaks after adjusting for CNA hours. Understanding the characteristics of NHs with large COVID-19 outbreaks can guide facility re-structuring to prevent the spread of respiratory infections in future pandemics.
- nursing homes
- short-stay admissions