Shared lessons in mobile learning among K-12 education, higher education and industry: an international Delphi study

Vitaliy Popov, Yang Jiang, Hyo Jeong So

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The present study aims to identify the challenges and solutions of implementing mobile learning in teaching and learning practices across K-12, higher education and industry. Methodologically, we employed Delphi study and scenario-based methods as primary techniques to collect and synthesize international experts’ opinions. A cross-sector panel of international experts from North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific participated in the study, consisting of 14 K-12 teachers, 13 academics, and 10 managers. The Delphi study was conducted in four rounds through online and face-to-face platforms: (Round I online) to generate own views on ML challenges in each of three sectors; (Round II online) to identify possible solution strategies and transferability; (Round III F2F) to develop workable solutions in small cross-sector teams; and then (Round IV online) to finalize transferability of solution strategies. Overall, the mobile learning experts identified four major challenge themes, which are risk taking (attitudes toward experimentation), matching technology to us (using technology in pedagogically sound ways), know-how (resources for information), and infrastructure (supporting structures and systems), that all sectors have been faced with. Findings suggest that perceived pedagogy and policy-related issues were the most prevalent in K-12 and higher education, while in the industry the emphasis was on technological challenges. This study also provides a synthesis of transferable solutions to some of the most significant challenges in mobile learning across sectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1149-1180
Number of pages32
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by a Grant from Qualcomm Inc.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Association for Educational Communications and Technology.


  • Cross-sector research
  • Delphi study
  • Education technology
  • Higher education
  • Industry
  • K-12
  • Mobile learning


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