Shadow Education and Academic Success in Republic of Korea

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

72 Scopus citations


This study examines the effects of different types of shadow education on academic achievement, using data from a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative sample of South Korean seventh graders. To control for pre-existing differences between students who used a particular type of shadow education and those who did not, the study employed a series of statistical models including propensity score matching techniques. Results show that the use of a particular type of shadow education (i.e., preparatory cram school) made a small difference in achievement gains in math, whereas other forms (i.e., individual tutoring, correspondence courses, on-line tutoring services, and Educational Broadcasting System [EBS]) made little difference. Limitations, implications, and future research directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEducation in the Asia-Pacific Region
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages20
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameEducation in the Asia-Pacific Region
ISSN (Print)1573-5397
ISSN (Electronic)2214-9791

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


  • Academic Achievement
  • Math Achievement
  • Private Tutoring
  • Propensity Score
  • Propensity Score Match


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