Sex determination from the mandibular ramus flexure of Koreans by discrimination function analysis using three-dimensional mandible models

Chenghe Lin, Benzheng Jiao, Shanshan Liu, Feng Guan, Nak Eun Chung, Seung Ho Han, U. Young Lee

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34 Scopus citations


It has been known that mandible ramus flexure is an important morphologic trait for sex determination. However, it will be unavailable when mandible is incomplete or fragmented. Therefore, the anthropometric analysis on incomplete or fragmented mandible becomes more important. The aim of this study is to investigate the sex-discriminant potential of mandible ramus flexure on the Korean three-dimensional (3D) mandible models with anthropometric analysis. The sample consists of 240 three dimensional mandibular models obtained from Korean population (M:F; 120:120, mean age 46.2. y), collected by The Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy, The Catholic University of Korea. Anthropometric information about 11 metric was taken with Mimics, anthropometry libraries toolkit. These parameters were subjected to different discriminant function analyses using SPSS 17.0. Univariate analyses showed that the resubstitution accuracies for sex determination range from 50.4 to 77.1%. Mandibular flexure upper border (MFUB), maximum ramus vertical height (MRVH), and upper ramus vertical height (URVH) expressed the greatest dimorphism, 72.1 to 77.1%. Bivariate analyses indicated that the combination of MFUB and MRVH hold even higher resubstitution accuracy of 81.7%. Furthermore, the direct and stepwise discriminant analyses with the variables on the upper ramus above flexure could predict sex in 83.3 and 85.0%, respectively. When all variables of mandibular ramus flexure were input in stepwise discriminant analysis, the resubstitution accuracy arrived as high as 88.8%. Therefore, we concluded that the upper ramus above flexure hold the larger potentials than the mandibular ramus flexure itself to predict sexes, and that the equations in bivariate and multivariate analysis from our study will be helpful for sex determination on Korean population in forensic science and law.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191.e1-191.e6
JournalForensic Science International
StatePublished - Mar 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( 2008-0061406 , 2011-0014096 ) and Scientific Investigation Method Development Program funded by the National Forensic Service ( NG-2010-3 ).


  • Discrimination function analysis
  • Korean
  • Mandibular ramus flexure
  • Sex determination
  • Three-dimensional model


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