Sex determination from calcaneus in Korean using discriminant analysis

Deog Im Kim, Yi Suk Kim, U. Young Lee, Seung Ho Han

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34 Scopus citations


The calcaneus can be used for the differentiation of sex and populations using discriminant function equations. This bone has been used for sex determination in some population groups, but it has not been used for sex determination in Koreans until now. The purpose of this study was to develop discriminant function equations for sex determination from the calcaneus in modern Koreans and prove the need for population-specific discriminant function equations. The sample consisted of 104 calcanei from modern Korean cadavers, and 10 variables were measured for each. All variables showed statistically significant sexual differences (P< 0.05) and generated a large effect size (Cohen's d> 0.9). The accuracy ranged from 65.4 to 89.4%, the highest accuracy was when all variables were used in the direct method. In dimensional groups, the length dimensional group had the highest accuracy (84.6%), and MINB (body of calcaneus) and MAXL (maximum calcaneal length) could be used as a single measurement. Most Korean females were misclassified as males using the equations of other population groups, and this finding demonstrates the necessity of population-specific equations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177.e1-177.e7
JournalForensic Science International
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - 10 May 2013


  • Calcaneus
  • Discriminant functions
  • Korea
  • Population-specificity
  • Sex determination


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