Sex dependent differences of temporomandibular condylar bone mineral density distribution

Paul J. Kim, Zachary Skabelund, Sonya Kalim, Christine H. Lee, Nathan Kim, Kristen Nguyen, Hany Emam, Lisa Knobloch, Toru Deguchi, Minji Kim, Do Gyoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in the mandibular condyle and facial morphology are associated with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) using clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: CBCT images of 35 adults (16 male and 19 female) were examined to obtain TMJ OA counts, cephalometric analyses, and histograms of gray values that are proportional to BMD. Mean, standard deviation (SD), and low and high gray values at the 5th and 95th percentiles (Low5 and High5) of the histograms were measured. Results: The female group had significantly higher values of TMJ OA counts, mean, and SD on the right mandibular condyle, High5 on both sides, and all gray value parameters for total (right + left) than the male group. Conclusion: Comprehensive analysis of BMD distribution in the mandibular condyle can provide useful information for prognosis of TMJ OA.

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© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Sex differences
  • bone mineral density
  • cephalogram
  • osteoarthritis
  • temporomandibular joint


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