Objectives: Dyslipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia is the 1st step to make guidelines of screening and management plan. Although, American Academy of Pediatrics updated the guidelines for lipid in childhood, Asian study is rare. Methods: The authors aimed to make a reference of each serum lipid level of Korean children and adolescents (2,363 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). Results: The mean serum concentrations for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 158 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, and 49 mg/dL, respectively. The 95th percentile values for TC, LDL-C, and TG were 203 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 185 mg/dL, respectively. The 5th percentile value for HDL-C was 36 mg/dL. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, high TG, and low HDL-C was 6.5%, 4.7%, 10.1%, and 7.1%, respectively. Considering the risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, approximately 0.41% of the subjects were potentially eligible for pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: This information may be useful in not only Korean but also Asian planning programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease through lipid control from childhood.