Sensory evaluation and marketing: Measurement of a consumer concept

H. S. Lee, M. O'Mahony

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


An abstract concept for a group of consumers was measured in terms of membership of various stimuli within that concept, using a simple ranking task. Consumers (N=72) ranked 20 commercial toothpastes according to their concepts of appearance of refreshingness. From these data, two R-index analyses were performed. Firstly, R-indices were calculated with reference to a concept exemplar (noise stimulus). Secondly, R-indices were computed pairwise, producing a rank order of refreshingness, with the R-indices indicating the spacing between the ranks. Two different ranking protocols were applied: standard ranking and first choice ranking. Rank orders were compared (Spearman's rho) for consumers both within and between methods and both were highly correlated; the two protocols were therefore equivalent. Also, consumer hedonic data correlated highly with refreshingness. Transparent blue was ranked as most refreshing, followed by a paste with 3 shades of blue stripes. Off-whites (ivory, off white, grayish white) were least refreshing in appearance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-235
Number of pages9
JournalFood Quality and Preference
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • Consumer concepts
  • First choice ranking
  • R-index
  • Standard ranking
  • Toothpaste appearance


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