Sensory Characteristics and Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability ofBulgogi(Korean Traditional Barbecued Beef)

J. H. Hong, E. K. Yoon, S. J. Chung, L. Chung, S. M. Cha, M. O'Mahony, Z. Vickers, K. O. Kim

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44 Scopus citations


Bulgogi(Korean traditional barbecued beef) is the most well-known Korean food to foreigners. There are, however, few studies on its sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability. This study was performed to identify the sensory attributes ofBulgogisamples prepared with different formulation and to compare the consumer acceptability in Korea and the United States.Bulgogisamples were prepared with varying levels of sugar and soy sauce with/without garlic or sesame oil. Descriptive analysis was conducted by 8 trained panelists. In consumer tests, 42 consumers in Seoul, Korea, 53 consumers in Davis (Calif., U.S.A.), and 39 consumers in St. Paul (Minn., U.S.A.) participated. Higher levels of sugar and soy sauce (SSS) significantly increased sweetness, saltiness, MSG taste, and soy sauce odor/flavor compared to the control made with the standard formula (CON). Elimination of sesame oil (ESO) significantly decreased sesame oil odor/flavor and oiliness, but increased green onion flavor. Elimination of garlic (EGC) significantly increased grilled beef odor/flavor, sesame oil odor/flavor, and oiliness, but decreased intensities of all the other attributes except bitterness. The consumers in Korea and the United States rated their overall liking for all samples similarly, preferring SSS to CON, EGC, and ESO. However Korean consumers seemed to detect the differences caused by formulation changes better than the U.S. consumers and these perceived differences seemed to impact the hedonic and the just-about-right ratings. Increase in soy sauce and sugar increased both Korean and the U.S. consumers' acceptability ofBulgogi,whereas eliminating garlic did not influence the consumer acceptability despite of its significant impact on sensory attributes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S306-S313
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2011


  • Bulgogi(Korean traditional barbecued beef)
  • Consumer acceptability
  • Cross-cultural comparison
  • Descriptive analysis


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