Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases which play a key role in invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of astrogliomas and other malignant tumors. Thus, controlling MMPs has been considered an important therapeutic strategy for prevention and/or treatment of gliomas. However, most MMP inhibitors developed so far are broad spectrum inhibitors; thus, it is necessary to develop a selective MMP inhibitor to minimize potential side effects. In the present study, we found that mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, specifically inhibited MMP-9 gene expression in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated human astroglioma U87MG, U373MG, and CRT-MG cells. However, it did not affect other MMPs, such as MMP-1, -2, -3, and -14. Mangiferin suppressed MMP-9 expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels and additionally inhibited MMP-9 enzymatic activity. The Matrigel-invasion assay showed that mangiferin suppresses the in vitro invasiveness of glioma cells, which appears to be correlated with mangiferin-mediated MMP-9 inhibition. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that mangiferin inhibits the binding of NF-κB and AP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter and suppresses the PMA-induced phosphorylation of Akt and MAP kinases, which are upstream signaling molecules in MMP-9 expression. Thus, the specific inhibition of MMP-9 by mangiferin may provide a valuable pharmacological tool for treatment of gliomas.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) ( 2010-0029354 ).
- Gene regulation
- Glioma invasion
- MAP kinases
- Matrix metalloproteinase-9