Selecting best-fit models for estimating the body mass from 3D data of the human calcaneus

Go Un Jung, U. Young Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Dai Soon Kwak, Yong Woo Ahn, Seung Ho Han, Yi Suk Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Body mass (BM) estimation could facilitate the interpretation of skeletal materials in terms of the individual's body size and physique in forensic anthropology. However, few metric studies have tried to estimate BM by focusing on prominent biomechanical properties of the calcaneus. The purpose of this study was to prepare best-fit models for estimating BM from the 3D human calcaneus by two major linear regression analysis (the heuristic statistical and all-possible-regressions techniques) and validate the models through predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) statistics. A metric analysis was conducted based on 70 human calcaneus samples (29 males and 41 females) taken from 3D models in the Digital Korean Database and 10 variables were measured for each sample. Three best-fit models were postulated by F-statistics, Mallows' Cp, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayes information criterion (BIC) for each available candidate models. Finally, the most accurate regression model yields lowest %SEE and 0.843 of R2. Through the application of leave-one-out cross validation, the predictive power was indicated a high level of validation accuracy. This study also confirms that the equations for estimating BM using 3D models of human calcaneus will be helpful to establish identification in forensic cases with consistent reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-45
Number of pages9
JournalForensic Science International
StatePublished - 1 May 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


  • All-possible-regression
  • Body mass estimation
  • Calcaneus
  • Forensic Anthropology Population data
  • Korean population
  • Three-dimensional model


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