Selected Bit-Line Current PUF: Implementation of Hardware Security Primitive Based on a Memristor Crossbar Array

Dayoung Kim, Tae Hyeon Kim, Yunyeong Choi, Geun Ho Lee, Jungwon Lee, Wookyung Sun, Byung Gook Park, Hyungjin Kim, Hyungsoon Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In this paper, a physical unclonable function (PUF), a type of hardware security device, is proposed to overcome the limitations of existing security schemes. A 32\times 32 crossbar array using TiOx/Al2O3- based memristors was fabricated, and electrical characteristics including its set voltage distribution were analyzed. The memristor switching characteristics model is described in a simplified space-charge-limited current (SCLC) regime. Based on this I-V model, selected bit-line current PUFs (SBC-PUFs) were designed with 32\times 32 , 64\times 64 , and 128\times 128 crossbar arrays. The entropy source of these PUFs is the set voltage deviation in the fabricated memristors. Due to these characteristics, the SBC-PUF can exploit the broad resistance distribution near the switching region, including the internal resistance distributions of the high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS). The SBC-PUF performance was evaluated for randomness/uniformity, correctness/reliability, and uniqueness by calculating the Hamming weight and intra/inter Hamming distance of challenge-response pairs (CRPs). The designed structure demonstrates high-security performance due to the high value of these indicators and the large number of CRPs. Furthermore, the devised PUF has a higher prediction error rate than arbiter PUF in machine learning attacks. This study verified that the SBC-PUF using the memristor of the crossbar array structure is safe enough to be used for hardware security.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9524627
Pages (from-to)120901-120910
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant 2019R1A2C1084063 and Grant 2020R1I1A1A01065622, and in part by the BK21-Four Program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Physical unclonable function (PUF)
  • crossbar array
  • hardware security
  • memristor


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