Second-order energy-momentum tensor of a scalar field

Inyong Cho, Jinn Ouk Gong, Seung Hun Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We investigate the second-order effective energy-momentum tensor (2EMT) constructed by the quadratic terms of the linear scalar cosmological perturbations while the universe is dominated by a scalar field. We show that 2EMT is gauge dependent. We then study 2EMT in three (longitudinal, spatially flat, and comoving) gauge conditions in the slow-roll stage of inflation. We find that 2EMT exhibits an effective fluid of w=-1/3 on superhorizon scales in all of those gauge conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number084027
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number8
StatePublished - 15 Oct 2022


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