Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious and devastating disease in livestock animals and has a great potential to cause severe economic loss worldwide. The major antigen of FMDV capsid protein, VP1, contains the major B-cell epitope responsible for effectively eliciting protective humoral immunity. In this study, irradiated Salmonella Typhimurium (KST0666) were used as transgenic vectors containing stress-inducible plasmid pRECN-VP1 to deliver the VP1 protein from FMDV-type A/WH/CHA/09. Mice were orally inoculated with ATOMASal-L3 harboring pRECN-VP1, and FMDV virus-like particles, where (VLPFMDV)-specific humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses were evaluated. Mice vaccinated with attenuated Salmonella (KST0666) expressing VP1 (named KST0669) showed high levels of VLP-specific IgA in feces and IgG in serum, with high FMDV neutralization titer. Moreover, KST0669-vaccinated mice showed increased population of IFN-γ (type 1 T helper cells; Th1 cells)-, IL-5 (Th2 cells)-, and IL-17A (Th17 cells)-expressing CD4+ as well as activated CD8+ T cells (IFN-γ+CD8+ cells), detected by stimulating VLPFMDV. All data indicate that our Salmonella vector system successfully delivered FMDV VP1 to immune cells and that the humoral and cellular efficacy of the vaccine can be easily evaluated using VLPFMDV in a Biosafety Level I (BSL1) laboratory.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under grants NRF-2019R1C1C1002484 to E.-B.B. and NRF-2020M2D8A3094054 to H.S.S.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Foot-and-mouth disease
- Live attenuated Salmonella vector
- Mucosal immunity
- Radiation mutation
- Virus-like particle