Since bacteria in foods often encounter various cold environments during food processing, such as chilling, cold chain distribution, and cold storage, lower temperatures can become a major stress environment for foodborne pathogens. Bacterial responses in stressful environments have been considered in the past, but now the importance of stress responses at the molecular level is becoming recognized. Documenting how bacterial changes occur at the molecular level may help to achieve the in-depth understanding of stress responses, to predict microbial fate when they encounter cold temperatures, and to design and develop more effective strategies to control pathogens in food for ensuring food safety. Microorganisms differ in responding to a sudden downshift in temperature and this, in turn, impacts their metabolic processes and can cause various structural modifications. In this review, the fundamental aspects of bacterial cold stress responses focused on cell membrane modification, DNA supercoiling modification, transcriptional and translational responses, cold-induced protein synthesis including CspA, CsdA, NusA, DnaA, RecA, RbfA, PNPase, KsgA, SrmB, trigger factors, and initiation factors are discussed. In this context, specific Salmonella responses to cold temperature including growth, injury, and survival and their physiological and genetic responses to cold environments with a focus on cross-protection, different gene expression levels, and virulence factors will be discussed.
|Title of host publication||Advances in Applied Microbiology|
|Editors||Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Sima Sariaslani|
|Publisher||Academic Press Inc.|
|Number of pages||38|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2018|
|Name||Advances in Applied Microbiology|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Author T.M.D. was supported by a scholarship from King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. During his graduate work, he was partially funded by a grant from the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (Research Group No. RGP-VPP-020). Author S.A.K. was initially supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015R1A6A3A03016811).
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
- Cold-induced protein
- Stress response
- Virulence factor