Salmonella Cold Stress Response: Mechanisms and Occurrence in Foods

Steven C. Ricke, Turki M. Dawoud, Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Young Min Kwon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Since bacteria in foods often encounter various cold environments during food processing, such as chilling, cold chain distribution, and cold storage, lower temperatures can become a major stress environment for foodborne pathogens. Bacterial responses in stressful environments have been considered in the past, but now the importance of stress responses at the molecular level is becoming recognized. Documenting how bacterial changes occur at the molecular level may help to achieve the in-depth understanding of stress responses, to predict microbial fate when they encounter cold temperatures, and to design and develop more effective strategies to control pathogens in food for ensuring food safety. Microorganisms differ in responding to a sudden downshift in temperature and this, in turn, impacts their metabolic processes and can cause various structural modifications. In this review, the fundamental aspects of bacterial cold stress responses focused on cell membrane modification, DNA supercoiling modification, transcriptional and translational responses, cold-induced protein synthesis including CspA, CsdA, NusA, DnaA, RecA, RbfA, PNPase, KsgA, SrmB, trigger factors, and initiation factors are discussed. In this context, specific Salmonella responses to cold temperature including growth, injury, and survival and their physiological and genetic responses to cold environments with a focus on cross-protection, different gene expression levels, and virulence factors will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Applied Microbiology
EditorsGeoffrey Michael Gadd, Sima Sariaslani
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages38
ISBN (Print)9780128151822
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Applied Microbiology
ISSN (Print)0065-2164

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.


  • Cold
  • Cold-induced protein
  • Food
  • Salmonella
  • Stress response
  • Virulence factor


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