The sluggish sodium reaction kinetics, unstable Sn/Na2O interface, and large volume expansion are major obstacles that impede practical applications of SnO2-based electrodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, we report the crafting of homogeneously confined oxygen-vacancy-containing SnO2−x nanoparticles with well-defined void space in porous carbon nanofibers (denoted SnO2−x/C composites) that address the issues noted above for advanced SIBs. Notably, SnO2−x/C composites can be readily exploited as the working electrode, without need for binders and conductive additives. In contrast to past work, SnO2−x/C composites-based SIBs show remarkable electrochemical performance, offering high reversible capacity, ultralong cyclic stability, and excellent rate capability. A discharge capacity of 565 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 is retained after 2000 cycles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51774203) and the Foundation of Guangdong Educational Committee (No. 2016KTSCX124), Shenzhen Science and Technology Project Program (Nos. JCYJ20160422112012739, KQJSCX20170327151152722).
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- SnO nanoparticles
- carbon nanofibers
- energy storage
- sodium-ion batteries