Robot-Delivered Cognitive Stimulation Games for Older Adults: Usability and Acceptability Evaluation

Norina Gasteiger, Ho Seok Ahn, Chiara Gasteiger, Christopher Lee, Jongyoon Lim, Christine Fok, Bruce A. MacDonald, Geon Ha Kim, Elizabeth Broadbent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Cognitive stimulation games delivered on robots may be able to improve cognitive functioning and delay decline in older adults. However, little is known about older adults' in-depth opinions of robot-delivered games, as current research primarily focuses on technical development and one-off use. This article explores the usability, acceptability, and perceptions of community-dwelling older adults towards cognitive games delivered on a robot that incorporated movable interactive blocks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at the end of a 12-week cognitive stimulation games intervention delivered entirely on robots. Participants were 10 older adults purposively sampled from two retirement villages. A framework analysis approach was used to code data to predefined themes related to technology acceptance (perceived benefits, satisfaction, and preference), and usability (effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction). Results indicated that cognitive games delivered on a robot may be a valuable addition to existing cognitive stimulation activities. The robot was considered easy to use and useful in improving cognitive functioning. Future developments should incorporate interactive gaming tools, the use of social anthropomorphic robots, contrasting colour schemes to accommodate macular degeneration, and cultural-specific imagery and language. This will help cater to the preferences and age-related health needs of older adults, to ultimately enhance usability and acceptability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3451882
JournalACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Human-robot interaction
  • cognitive robots
  • cognitive stimulation
  • gerontechnology
  • interactive games
  • technology acceptance
  • user perspective


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