Roasting and cryogenic grinding enhance the antioxidant property of sword beans (canavalia gladiata)

Ju Yeong Jung, Jin Kyu Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to optimize the conditions for enhancing the antioxidant properties of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) as a coffee substitute in two processing methods, roasting and grinding. The optimum conditions for removing off-flavor of the bean and maximizing functionality and efficiency were light roasting and cryogenic grinding (< 53 μm). In these conditions, extraction yield was 16.75%, total phenolic content (TPC) was 69.82 ± 0.35 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and total flavonoid content (TFC) was 168.81 ± 1.64 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g. The antioxidant properties were 77.58 ± 0.27% for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 58.02 ± 0.76 mg Trolox equivalents/g for ABTS radical scavenging activity. The values for TFC and ABTS radical scavenging activity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in other conditions, and TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity were second highest in lightly roasted beans, following raw beans. HS-SPME/GCMS analysis confirmed that the amino acids and carbohydrates, which are the main components of sword bean, were condensed into other volatile flavor compounds, such as derivatives of furan, pyrazine, and pyrrole during roasting. Roasted and cryogenically ground (cryo-ground) sword beans showed higher functionality in terms of TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activities compared to those of coffee. Overall results showed that light roasting and cryogenic grinding are the most suitable processing conditions for enhancing the bioactivity of sword beans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1706-1719
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07045349) and the Ewha Womans University Research Grant of 2020.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright© 2020 by The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology


  • Antioxidant
  • Canavalia gladiata
  • Cryogenic grinding
  • Roasting
  • Sword bean


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