Background: Clinical trials of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) have demonstrated reduced risks of stroke and bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Here, we aim to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, a NOAC, compared with warfarin, a VKA, and the effects of rivaroxaban on cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) and AF. Methods: Rivaroxaban Once-daily vs. dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist on biomarkers in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation (ROAD HF-AF) is a randomized, open-labeled, controlled, prospective, multicenter pilot study designed to assess cardiovascular biomarkers and the safety of rivaroxaban (20 or 15 mg in patients with creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min per day) compared with VKA (target international normalized range: 2–3) in 150 patients hospitalized with ADHF and AF. The primary endpoint is the change in circulating high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hsTn) during hospitalization. The secondary endpoints are bleeding, hospital stay duration, in-hospital mortality, and changes in cardiovascular, renal, and thrombosis biomarkers. Patients will be followed for 180 days. Conclusion: We hypothesize that rivaroxaban will reduce myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress, as reflected by the biomarker status, within 72 h in patients with ADHF and AF, compared with VKA. We hope to facilitate future biomarker-based, large-scale outcome trials using NOACs in patients with ADHF and AF, based on the results of this multicenter, randomized, controlled study.
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Copyright © 2022 Cho, Oh, Kim, Chung, Lee, Kim, Byun, Yoo, Choi, Chung, Pyun and Kang.
- acute decompensated heart failure
- atrial fibrillation
- vitamin K antagonist (VKA)