Risk of uterine leiomyomata with menstrual and reproductive factors in premenopausal women: Korea nurses’ health study

Sihan Song, Soojin Park, Bo Mi Song, Jung Eun Lee, Chiyoung Cha, Hyun Young Park

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Uterine leiomyomata (UL) are benign smooth muscle tumors that may cause significant morbidity in women of reproductive age. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of menstrual and reproductive factors with the risk of UL in premenopausal women. Methods: This prospective study included 7,360 premenopausal women aged 22–48 years who were part of the Korea Nurses’ Health Study. Information on the menstrual cycle and reproductive history was assessed between 2014 and 2016, and self-reported cases of UL were obtained through 2021. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 32,072 person-years of follow-up, 447 incident cases of UL were reported. After adjusting for other risk factors, women with late age at menarche had a lower incidence of UL (≥ 16 vs. 12–13 years: HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47–0.99; p for trend = 0.026). The risk of UL was inversely associated with current menstrual cycle length (≥ 40 or too irregular to estimate vs. 26–31 days: HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24–0.66) and cycle length at ages 18–22 years (HR 0.45; 95% CI 0.31–0.67; p for trend < 0.001, each). Parous women had lower risk of UL than nulliparous women (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.30–0.53) and women who were aged 29–30 years at first birth had a lower risk of UL than those who were aged ≤ 28 years at first birth (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34–0.98). There was no significant association of the number of births or breastfeeding with the risk of UL among parous women. Neither a history of infertility nor oral contraceptive use was associated with the risk of UL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that age at menarche, menstrual cycle length, parity, and age at first birth are inversely associated with the risk of UL in premenopausal Korean women. Future studies are warranted to confirm the long-term effects of menstrual and reproductive factors on women’s health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number305
JournalBMC Women's Health
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Menarche
  • Menstrual cycles
  • Prospective studies
  • Reproductive health
  • Uterine leiomyomata

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